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OS Credential Dumping: /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow

Description from ATT&CK

Adversaries may attempt to dump the contents of /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow to enable offline password cracking. Most modern Linux operating systems use a combination of /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow to store user account information including password hashes in /etc/shadow. By default, /etc/shadow is only readable by the root user.(Citation: Linux Password and Shadow File Formats)

The Linux utility, unshadow, can be used to combine the two files in a format suited for password cracking utilities such as John the Ripper:(Citation: nixCraft - John the Ripper) # /usr/bin/unshadow /etc/passwd /etc/shadow > /tmp/crack.password.db

Atomic Tests

Atomic Test #1 - Access /etc/shadow (Local)

/etc/shadow file is accessed in Linux environments

Supported Platforms: linux

auto_generated_guid: 3723ab77-c546-403c-8fb4-bb577033b235

Inputs:

Name Description Type Default Value
output_file Path where captured results will be placed Path /tmp/T1003.008.txt

Attack Commands: Run with bash! Elevation Required (e.g. root or admin)

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sudo cat /etc/shadow > #{output_file}
cat #{output_file}

Cleanup Commands:

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rm -f #{output_file}

Atomic Test #2 - Access /etc/passwd (Local)

/etc/passwd file is accessed in Linux environments

Supported Platforms: linux

auto_generated_guid: 60e860b6-8ae6-49db-ad07-5e73edd88f5d

Inputs:

Name Description Type Default Value
output_file Path where captured results will be placed Path /tmp/T1003.008.txt

Attack Commands: Run with sh!

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cat /etc/passwd > #{output_file}
cat #{output_file}

Cleanup Commands:

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rm -f #{output_file}

Atomic Test #3 - Access /etc/{shadow,passwd} with a standard bin that's not cat

Dump /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow using ed

Supported Platforms: linux

auto_generated_guid: df1a55ae-019d-4120-bc35-94f4bc5c4b0a

Inputs:

Name Description Type Default Value
output_file Path where captured results will be placed Path /tmp/T1003.008.txt

Attack Commands: Run with bash! Elevation Required (e.g. root or admin)

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echo -e "e /etc/passwd\n,p\ne /etc/shadow\n,p\n" | ed > #{output_file}

Cleanup Commands:

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rm -f #{output_file}

Atomic Test #4 - Access /etc/{shadow,passwd} with shell builtins

Dump /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow using bash builtins

Supported Platforms: linux

auto_generated_guid: f5aa6543-6cb2-4fae-b9c2-b96e14721713

Inputs:

Name Description Type Default Value
output_file Path where captured results will be placed Path /tmp/T1003.008.txt

Attack Commands: Run with bash! Elevation Required (e.g. root or admin)

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function testcat(){ echo "$(< $1)"; }
testcat /etc/passwd > #{output_file}
testcat /etc/shadow > #{output_file}

Cleanup Commands:

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rm -f #{output_file}

source