T1083 - File and Directory Discovery

Description from ATT&CK

Adversaries may enumerate files and directories or may search in specific locations of a host or network share for certain information within a file system. Adversaries may use the information from [File and Directory Discovery](https://attack.mitre.org/techniques/T1083) during automated discovery to shape follow-on behaviors, including whether or not the adversary fully infects the target and/or attempts specific actions. Many command shell utilities can be used to obtain this information. Examples include dir, tree, ls, find, and locate.(Citation: Windows Commands JPCERT) Custom tools may also be used to gather file and directory information and interact with the [Native API](https://attack.mitre.org/techniques/T1106). Adversaries may also leverage a [Network Device CLI](https://attack.mitre.org/techniques/T1059/008) on network devices to gather file and directory information (e.g. dir, show flash, and/or nvram).(Citation: US-CERT-TA18-106A) Some files and directories may require elevated or specific user permissions to access.

Atomic Tests


Atomic Test #1 - File and Directory Discovery (cmd.exe)

Find or discover files on the file system. Upon successful execution, this test will output the results of all the data discovery commands to a specified file.

Supported Platforms: Windows

auto_generated_guid: 0e36303b-6762-4500-b003-127743b80ba6

Inputs:

| Name | Description | Type | Default Value | |——|————-|——|—————| | output_file | File to output results to | string | %temp%\T1083Test1.txt|

Attack Commands: Run with
1
command_prompt
!

dir /s c:\ >> #{output_file}
dir /s "c:\Documents and Settings" >> #{output_file}
dir /s "c:\Program Files\" >> #{output_file}
dir "%systemdrive%\Users\*.*" >> #{output_file}
dir "%userprofile%\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Windows\Recent\*.*" >> #{output_file}
dir "%userprofile%\Desktop\*.*" >> #{output_file}
tree /F >> #{output_file}

Cleanup Commands:

del #{output_file}



Atomic Test #2 - File and Directory Discovery (PowerShell)

Find or discover files on the file system. Upon execution, file and folder information will be displayed.

Supported Platforms: Windows

auto_generated_guid: 2158908e-b7ef-4c21-8a83-3ce4dd05a924

Attack Commands: Run with
1
powershell
!

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ls -recurse
get-childitem -recurse
gci -recurse



Atomic Test #3 - Nix File and Directory Discovery

Find or discover files on the file system

References:

http://osxdaily.com/2013/01/29/list-all-files-subdirectory-contents-recursively/

https://perishablepress.com/list-files-folders-recursively-terminal/

Supported Platforms: Linux, macOS

auto_generated_guid: ffc8b249-372a-4b74-adcd-e4c0430842de

Inputs:

| Name | Description | Type | Default Value | |——|————-|——|—————| | output_file | Output file used to store the results. | path | /tmp/T1083.txt|

Attack Commands: Run with
1
sh
!

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ls -a >> #{output_file}
if [ -d /Library/Preferences/ ]; then ls -la /Library/Preferences/ > #{output_file}; fi;
file */* *>> #{output_file}
cat #{output_file} 2>/dev/null
find . -type f
ls -R | grep ":$" | sed -e 's/:$//' -e 's/[^-][^\/]*\//--/g' -e 's/^/ /' -e 's/-/|/'
locate *
which sh

Cleanup Commands:

1
rm #{output_file}



Atomic Test #4 - Nix File and Directory Discovery 2

Find or discover files on the file system

Supported Platforms: Linux, macOS

auto_generated_guid: 13c5e1ae-605b-46c4-a79f-db28c77ff24e

Inputs:

| Name | Description | Type | Default Value | |——|————-|——|—————| | output_file | Output file used to store the results. | path | /tmp/T1083.txt|

Attack Commands: Run with
1
sh
!

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cd $HOME && find . -print | sed -e 's;[^/]*/;|__;g;s;__|; |;g' > #{output_file}
if [ -f /etc/mtab ]; then cat /etc/mtab >> #{output_file}; fi;
find . -type f -iname *.pdf >> #{output_file}
cat #{output_file}
find . -type f -name ".*"

Cleanup Commands:

1
rm #{output_file}



Atomic Test #5 - Simulating MAZE Directory Enumeration

This test emulates MAZE ransomware’s ability to enumerate directories using Powershell. Upon successful execution, this test will output the directory enumeration results to a specified file, as well as display them in the active window. See https://www.mandiant.com/resources/tactics-techniques-procedures-associated-with-maze-ransomware-incidents

Supported Platforms: Windows

auto_generated_guid: c6c34f61-1c3e-40fb-8a58-d017d88286d8

Inputs:

| Name | Description | Type | Default Value | |——|————-|——|—————| | File_to_output | File to output results to | string | $env:temp\T1083Test5.txt|

Attack Commands: Run with
1
powershell
!

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$folderarray = @("Desktop", "Downloads", "Documents", "AppData/Local", "AppData/Roaming")
Get-ChildItem -Path $env:homedrive -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue | Out-File -append #{File_to_output}
Get-ChildItem -Path $env:programfiles -erroraction silentlycontinue | Out-File -append #{File_to_output}
Get-ChildItem -Path "${env:ProgramFiles(x86)}" -erroraction silentlycontinue | Out-File -append #{File_to_output}
$UsersFolder = "$env:homedrive\Users\"
foreach ($directory in Get-ChildItem -Path $UsersFolder -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue) 
{
foreach ($secondarydirectory in $folderarray)
 {Get-ChildItem -Path "$UsersFolder/$directory/$secondarydirectory" -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue | Out-File -append #{File_to_output}}
}
cat #{File_to_output}

Cleanup Commands:

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remove-item #{File_to_output} -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue



Atomic Test #6 - Launch DirLister Executable

Launches the DirLister executable for a short period of time and then exits.

Recently seen used by BlackCat ransomware to create a list of accessible directories and files.

Supported Platforms: Windows

auto_generated_guid: c5bec457-43c9-4a18-9a24-fe151d8971b7

Inputs:

| Name | Description | Type | Default Value | |——|————-|——|—————| | dirlister_path | Path to the DirLister executable | string | PathToAtomicsFolder\..\ExternalPayloads\DirLister.exe|

Attack Commands: Run with
1
powershell
!

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Start-Process "#{dirlister_path}"
Start-Sleep -Second 4
Stop-Process -Name "DirLister"

Dependencies: Run with
1
powershell
!

Description: DirLister.exe must exist in the specified path #{dirlister_path}
Check Prereq Commands:
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if (Test-Path "#{dirlister_path}") {exit 0} else {exit 1}
Get Prereq Commands:
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$parentpath = Split-Path "#{dirlister_path}"
New-Item -ItemType Directory -Force -Path $parentpath | Out-Null
Invoke-WebRequest https://github.com/SanderSade/DirLister/releases/download/v2.beta4/DirLister.v2.beta4.zip -OutFile "PathToAtomicsFolder\..\ExternalPayloads\TDirLister.v2.beta4.zip"
Expand-Archive -Path "PathToAtomicsFolder\..\ExternalPayloads\TDirLister.v2.beta4.zip" -DestinationPath "PathToAtomicsFolder\..\ExternalPayloads\TDirLister.v2.beta4" -Force
Copy-Item "PathToAtomicsFolder\..\ExternalPayloads\TDirLister.v2.beta4\*" "$parentpath" -Recurse
Remove-Item "PathToAtomicsFolder\..\ExternalPayloads\TDirLister.v2.beta4.zip","PathToAtomicsFolder\..\ExternalPayloads\TDirLister.v2.beta4" -Recurse -ErrorAction Ignore



Atomic Test #7 - ESXi - Enumerate VMDKs available on an ESXi Host

An adversary uses the find command to enumerate vmdks on an ESXi host. Reference

Supported Platforms: Linux

auto_generated_guid: 4a233a40-caf7-4cf1-890a-c6331bbc72cf

Inputs:

| Name | Description | Type | Default Value | |——|————-|——|—————| | vm_host | Specify the host name of the ESXi Server | string | atomic.local| | vm_user | Specify the privilege user account on ESXi Server | string | root| | vm_pass | Specify the privilege user password on ESXi Server | string | pass| | plink_file | Path to Plink | path | PathToAtomicsFolder\..\ExternalPayloads\plink.exe| | cli_script | Path to script with file discovery commands | path | PathToAtomicsFolder\T1083\src\esxi_file_discovery.txt|

Attack Commands: Run with
1
command_prompt
!

echo "" | "#{plink_file}" "#{vm_host}" -ssh  -l "#{vm_user}" -pw "#{vm_pass}" -m "#{cli_script}"

Dependencies: Run with
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powershell
!

Check Prereq Commands:
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if (Test-Path "#{plink_file}") {exit 0} else {exit 1}
Get Prereq Commands:
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New-Item -Type Directory "PathToAtomicsFolder\..\ExternalPayloads\" -ErrorAction Ignore -Force | Out-Null
Invoke-WebRequest "https://the.earth.li/~sgtatham/putty/latest/w64/plink.exe" -OutFile "#{plink_file}"